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Research: Sawmill Database

Alpha-Numeric Key: JE-40
Corporate Name: Long Manufacturing Company
Local Name:
Owner Name: Long Manufacturing Company. Frank L. Carroll, William A. Fletcher, John W. Keith, and Joseph A. Carroll (all brothers-in-law married to James Long's sisters). Davis Long and James Long. James Long & Frank L. Carroll. John R. Ross & James R Alexander
Location: Beaumont on Brake's Bayou
County: Jefferson
Years in Operation: 42 years
Start Year: 1857
End Year: 1898
Decades: 1850-1859,1860-1869,1870-1879,1880-1889,1890-1899
Period of Operation: 1857 to 1859. 1860 to 1867 (inoperative).1867 rebuilt to 1898.
Town: Beaumont
Company Town: 1
Peak Town Size: Unknown
Mill Pond:
Type of Mill: 1857 to 1859: Lumber and cornmeal. 1867-lumber; 1873-shingles: 140,000 daily in 1877
Sawmill Pine Sawmill Hardwood Sawmill Cypress Sawmill
Planer Planer Only Shingle Paper
Plywood Cotton Grist Unknown
Other
Power Source: 1870: one saw 20-horsepower steam engine. 1875: three 75-horsepower steam engines
Horse Mule Oxen Water
Water Overshot Water Turbine Diesel Unknown
Pit Steam Steam Circular Steam Band
Gas Electricity Other
Maximum Capacity: 
Capacity Comments: 1,000 feet daily in 1859 and then doubled. In 1877, 140,000 shingles daily
Produced:
Rough Lumber Planed Lumber Crossties Timbers
Lathe Ceiling Unknown Beading
Flooring Paper Plywood Particle Board
Treated Other
Equipment: Originally a combination grist and circular sawmill. 1870, a single circular. 1880 Census: 3 circular saws, one band saw. 1890: band saw
Company Tram:
Associated Railroads: Yellow Bluff Tram Company. Texas & New Orleans
Historicial Development: James R. Alexander and John R. Ross built a circular sawmill and grist mill on Brake's Bayou in 1857. Financial difficulties were followed by a fire that burned down the mill in February 1859 and about $15,000 worth of cypress logs. James Long and Frank Carroll bought the site and burned-out equipment in 1860. The Civil War prevented operations at the mill site until 1867 when the Long and Long sawmill was built as a result of Davis Long, James' father, buying an half interest in the mill. The 1870 Census recorded that the single circular sawmill cut 1,200,000 board feet at a value of $14,000 in twelve months from raw materials valued at $6,000. The mill employed nine workers and paid them a total wage of $3,000. In November and December 1877, Long Manufacturing shipped more than 2,500,000 shingles. James Long died in 1873. His widow gave her brothers-in-law permission to run the company. The family formed the Long Manufacturing Company, which produced shingles and became the largest employer, sixty workers, in Beaumont. In 1880, capitalized at $50,000, the mill produced 24,000,000 shingles valued at $50,000. Employing a maximum of sixty workers and an average of thirty-five, twelve of those boys under the age of sixteen, the mill paid skilled workers $3 and unskilled $1.50 daily for an eleven hour shift. The annual wage for ten months of operation totaled $18,000. Long Manufacturing and Beaumont Lumber organized the Yellow Bluff Tram Company to do its logging. The company had a telephone line by 1881, linking it with the Beaumont Lumber Company, a Fletcher-Carroll-Keith operation. Long Manufacturing was a very successful business, helping to push the fabulous ventures of the Fletcher, Keith, and Carroll families. The creation of the Yellow Bluff Tram Company, a takeover of the Wiess Bluff Tram Company, introduced logging steam engines in Jasper County in 1877. Economic recession, excess production, and a scarcity of cypress led to bankruptcy in 1898 in order to satisfy its creditors.
Research Date: MCJ 03-12-96
Prepared By: M Johnson